Norfolk Medical Clinics - The medical term "Respiratory Disease" encompasses a large variety of pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues which make gas exchange possible. Respiratory disease comprises conditions of the bronchi, upper respiratory tract, bronchioles, trachea, alveoli, pleura, pleural cavity in addition to the nerves and muscles responsible for breathing. Respiratory diseases vary from self-limiting and mild such as the common cold for instance, to life-threatening conditions like bacterial pneumonia, ling cancer and pulmonary embolism.
The study of Pulmonology focuses on respiratory diseases, whereas those specializing doctors in this area are called a pulmonologist. Medical practitioners in this field may also be known as: a respiratory medicine specialist, a thoracic medicine specialist, a chest medicine expert and a respirologist.
There are many classifications used for the several respiratory diseases; they can be classed by the tissue or organ involved or can be classed by the type and pattern of connected signs and symptoms, or based on the cause of the disease or etiology.
Inflammatory Lung Disease
This specific disease, which includes emphysema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder and cystic fibrosis, are characterized by a high neutrophil count.
A common reason for acute respiratory disease is an allergic reaction due to exposure to various agents and foods. There are some very common allergens found in certain foods like for example lemon, radish, sea foods such as some prawns and fatty fish, bananas, peanuts, ice creams and dairy, pomegranates, arrowroot, lemon, lady's finger and berries. Climate could likewise affect several individuals since dusty and sandy climate during summer can make the quality of air poor for individuals who are sensitive.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
This category of lung diseases are where the airways consisting of the bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli become reduced in volume or else have the free flow of gas impeded, thus making it more difficult to move air in and out of the lungs.
COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Asthma is an example of COPD. In this obstructive lung disease, the airways become damaged and this causes them to narrow.
Restrictive Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases
Restrictive Lung Diseases are a category of respiratory disease which is characterized by a loss of lung compliance. These RLD's may cause increased lung stiffness and incomplete lung expansion. IRDS or Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an instance.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Infections can affect whichever part of the respiratory system. They are usually divided into upper respiratory tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common kind of upper respiratory infection is the common cold. Infections of the upper respiratory tract particular organs could comprise pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, laryngitis and otitis media are also in this category.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
Pneumonia is the most common lower respiratory tract infection. It is a lung infection normally due to bacteria, normally Streptococcus in the Western world. Tuberculosis is a large cause of pneumonia across the world. Different fungi and viruses could lead to pneumonia also, for instance acute respiratory syndrome and pneumocystic pneumonia.
Respiratory tumours are either malignant or benign.
Pleural Cavity Diseases
Diseases of the pleural cavity consists of mesothelioma and emphysema. A collection of fluid in the pleural cavity is known as a pleural effusion. This can be due to situations like congestive heart failure and cirrhosis, because the fluid from the bloodstream shifts into the pleural cavity. Diseases here may even happen from TB, pleura inflammation, mesothelioma, pulmonary embolism and various conditions.
A hole in the pleura which covers the lung and allows air in the lung to escape into the pleural cavity is referred to as a pneumothorax. In this example, the affected lung collapses like a balloon which is inflated. A tension pneumothorax is a severe form of this where the air cannot escape in the pleural cavity and the pressure gets bigger eventually compressing the blood vessels and the heart, causing a dangerous life-threatening situation.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
Conditions that affect the pulmonary circulation are called Pulmonary Vascular Diseases. Several instances include: Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary embolism and Pulmponary edema.
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